Educational gender gap Regions Provinces Students Teachers Schools Male Female This research aims to find the size of the gender gap in education in the ten provinces of the Eastern Region (ER) and the South-Eastern Region (SER) of Afghanistan. Based on the World Economic Forum (WEF) approach to the gender gap, the study measures the educational gender gap index (EGGI) at both the regional and provincial level. The study found that the regional EGGI is 0.30. This means that 70% of the gender gap remains. The EGGI in the ER is 0.35, while in the SER it is 0.25, which means that 65% and 75% of the gender gap remains in the ER and the SER respectively. Thus, the gap is smaller in the ER than in the SER. At the provincial level, the best performing province is Nangarhar, where 42% of the gap has been closed. The worst performing province is Wardak, where only 15% of the gap has been closed. Of the six sub-indexes of the EGGI which were calculated from the primary data, the largest gender disparity is in the enrolment in tertiary level education, which has a gap of 69%. The second largest gap is 55% for the number of male and female schools. Both middle school enrolment and teacher gender ratio have similar sized gaps of 53%. The gaps for enrolment in primary education and secondary education are lower, at 30% and 43% respectively. The gap between the male and female student-teacher ratios is 73.6%. Furthermore, there is a 67.7% gap in literacy rate between males and females across the country.
## 1. INTRODUCTION## 1.1. DESCRIPTION OF DATA
Both primary and secondary data
were used in this research. The core of this research used primary data, and
secondary data were used mainly to construct the theoretical framework. To
obtain the primary data, a structured questionnaire was distributed to the ten
provinces of the Eastern Region (ER) and the South-Eastern Region (SER) of
Afghanistan. Figure 1 shows the ten provinces
of these two regions in which this research was conducted: Nangarhar, Laghman, Kunar and Nuristan in the ER, and Paktia,
Logar, Paktika, Khowst, Ghazni and Wardak in the SER. The data were collected from
the educational directorates of these provinces.
According to the most recent data,
Afghanistan’s population is 38.04 million, with 51.7% of the population male
and the remaining 48.3% female. The combined population of the ER and the SER
(where we conducted this study) is 7,208,211 (World population, 2019). Figures 2 and 3 show the data
collected on the number of male and female students and teachers in these two
regions. There are 2,575,494 students in the two regions, and 33% (855,547) of
them are female. Furthermore, there are 48,337 teachers, of which 12% (5,647)
are female. .
Source: author computation Figure 4
shows the numbers and percentages of students enrolled in school in the ER and
the SER of Afghanistan. On average, 16%
of girls and 31% of boys are enrolled in primary education, 7% of girls and 12%
of boys are enrolled in middle schools, and 9% of girls and 22% of boys are
enrolled in secondary education. Just 1% of women and 2% of men are in teacher
training colleges.
Source: author computation Children start school at the age
of seven in Afghanistan. They study at primary school for six years, middle
school for three years and then secondary school for a further three years, so
it takes 12 years to complete primary, middle and secondary school in
Afghanistan. Tertiary educational is started after completing secondary
education. In this research, only tertiary education which consists of two
years of study, such as courses at teacher training institutions, was
considered. ## 2.
RESEARCH
QUESTION/THEORETICAL CONTEXTUALIZATION
As a numerical term, gender parity
in education means the equal participation of both boys and girls in different
areas of education (UNESCO, 2000). Globally, the educational attainment gap is
significantly below parity, at 4.4% (WEF, 2018). This project aims to measure the
magnitude of the persistent gender gap in education across all ten provinces of
the two regions. Hence, the research will find scientific answers to the
following research questions: ·
Which region has a
larger gender gap in education (eastern or south-eastern)? ·
What disparities exist
between male and female students regarding educational attainment in these two
regions, and how large are these disparities? ·
Which of the ten
provinces has the largest and which has the smallest gender gap in education?
How are they ranked? ## 3.
FIELD
RESEARCH DESIGN/METHODS OF GATHERING DATA
This research is designed to
quantitatively study the gender gap in education in the provinces of the ER and
SER of Afghanistan. The population of the study is the ten provinces of these
two regions. The required data was collected through a structured 22-question
questionnaire distributed to the public educational directorates of these ten
provinces. A team of ten data collectors was trained and sent to these provinces
to collect certified data from the public educational directorates. The study is designed to measure
the educational gender gap index (EGGI) regionally, as well as in each zone and
province separately. Based on the gender gap approach of the World Economic
Forum introduced by Hausmann, Tyson and Zahidi, this
study measured the EGGI using a weighted mean of six sub-indexes. These six
sub-indexes of the EGGI are defined as the following ratios: ·
Ratio (R ·
Ratio (R ·
Ratio (R ·
Ratio (R ·
Ratio (R ·
Ratio (R Due to the unavailability of
authentic data on the literacy rate in these provinces, we chose to exclude
this from the model and study it separately and across the whole country. To measure the gender gap in
education, the study used a three-step process, outlined below.
For example, standard deviations
are calculated for each of the variables. Then we determine what a 1% change
would translate to in terms of standard deviations by dividing 0.01 by the
standard deviation for each variable. These six values are then used as weights
to calculate the weighted average of the six variables. This way of weighting
the variables essentially allows us to make sure that each variable has the
same relative impact on the index. ## 4.
RESULTS
The educational gender gap was
computed for both regions, as well as for each of the provinces of these
regions. Table 1 shows that there is still a gender gap of 70% in education in
these two regions. The Educational Gender Gap Index (EGGI) for both regions is approximately 30%. This means that there is still a 70% gap yet to be closed. Table 1 shows the procedure used to compute the EGGI and its sub-indexes.
Source: author computation Figure 5 shows that across
the six sub-indexes, enrolment in tertiary level education has the largest
gender gap of 69%. The second largest gap is 55% for the number of male and
female schools. Similarly, there is a 53% gap for both middle school enrolment
and the teacher gender ratio. The gaps in secondary education and primary
education enrolment are lower, at 43% and 30% respectively.
Source: author computation
Source: author Table 2 shows the computational
process for determining the educational gender gap index (EGGI) for each
province of the two regions. The size of the gap for each region, based on the
weighed means, is presented in Figure 6, which shows that the gap is larger in
the SER than in the ER. Figure 6 shows the regional EGGI
for both the ER and the SER. The regional EGGI is 0.30. This means that 70% of
the gap is yet to be closed. The EGGI in the ER is 0.35, while in the SER it is
0.25. This means there is a 65% gap in the ER and a 75% gap in the SER. Thus,
the gap is smaller in the ER than in the SER.
Source: author Figure 7 shows the provincial
profiles of the gap for the ER. As can be seen, Nangarhar has the smallest
gender gap, with a weighted mean of 41.8%. Laghman has the second smallest,
with 36.5% of the gap having been bridged. Nuristan, where 33.3% of the gap has
been closed, is in third position. Kunar has the
largest gender gap in the ER, with a weighted mean of 29.9% and therefore 70.1%
of the gap yet to be closed.
Source: author computation
Source: author computation Figure 8 shows the provincial
profiles of the gap for the SER. Based on their weighted means or EGGI, the
best performing province in the SER is Logar, where
the educational gender gap has been closed by 33.2%. Khowst
is the second best province, with 31.9% of the gap
having been bridged. The gaps in Ghazni and Paktia province have been closed by 26% and 25.7%
respectively. The two worst performing provinces are Wardak and Paktika, where
the gaps have been closed by only 15.1% and 16.3% respectively. Figure 9 ranks the provinces based
on their weighted mean or EGGI. Nangarhar is in first position, with a weighted
mean of 42%. Laghman and Nuristan are the second and third best performers,
having closed the gap by 36% and 34% respectively. Wardak and Paktiaka are the worst performing provinces, with their
gaps having been closed by 15% and 16% respectively. Logar,
Khowst, Kunar, Ghazni and Paktia provinces are in
4
Source: author ## 4.1. STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO ANALYSIS
The student-teacher ratio (STR)
can be computed from Figures 2 and 3 on page 3 as follows. STR = the number of
both male and female students over the number of both male and female teachers: The female student-teacher ratio
(FSTR) can be derived as the number of female students divided by the number of
female teachers: The male student-teacher ratio
(MSTR) can be found by dividing the number of male students by the number of
male teachers: The gap in this important ratio
can be measured as: ,
which shows that only 26.4% of the gap in this sub-index has been bridged. Figure 10 depicts the number of
female students per female teacher in each of the provinces. The best
performing province is Ghazni, which has one female
teacher for every 86 female students. The second-best performing province is Logar, where this ratio is 97:1. Paktika is the worst
performing province, with a ratio of 1353:1. The second worst performing
province is Khowst, which has a ratio of 462:1.
Source: author computation Literacy rate is considered
another sub-index of the EGGI. According to a VOA Dari interview with Nurya Nuhzat, a spokeswoman for
the Ministry of Education of Afghanistan, the literacy rate in the country is
42%. One third of those who can read are female, and thus 33.3% of the gender
gap has been closed, while 67.7% of it is yet to be bridged (VOA Dari,
September 8, 2019). ## 5.
DISCUSSION
AND CONCLUSION
One particular societal and
economic problem is the persistent gap between male and female access to
educational resources and opportunities. This gap not only undermines the
quality of life of one half of Afghanistan’s population, but also poses a
significant risk to the long-term growth and well-being of the country. The purpose of this research is to
measure and analyze the gender gap in education regionally and provincially in
both the eastern and southeastern regions of Afghanistan. The study found that
there is a large gender gap in education in both regions. The EGGI is
approximately 0.30 for both regions. This means there is a gap of 70% in
educational attainment between males and females in these two regions. The EGGI is 0.35 in the ER and
0.25 in the SER. This indicates that the educational gender gap in the ER is
65%, and in the SER it is 75%. The gap is thus
narrower in the ER than in the SER. At the provincial level, Nangarhar has the
smallest gender gap in education of the ten provinces, and Wadak
has the largest. The gap size in Nangarhar is 58%, while in Wardak it is 85%. Across the six sub-indexes of the EGGI, the largest gender
disparity is in enrolment in tertiary level education, which has a gap of 69%.
The second largest gap is 55% for the number of male and female schools. There
is a similar gap of 53% in both middle school enrolment and teacher gender
ratio. The gaps in enrolment in primary education and secondary education are
lower, at 30% and 43% respectively. In addition, the gap in the
student-teacher ratio between males and females is 73.6% in both regions.
Moreover, based on the secondary data analysis, there is a 67.7% gap in
literacy rate between males and females across the country. Further research should be
conducted to measure the gap in literacy rate in the provinces studied in this
research, as well as to study the causes of the gender gap in these or other
regions and provinces of Afghanistan. ## SOURCES OF FUNDINGNone. ## CONFLICT OF INTERESTNone. ## ACKNOWLEDGMENTNone. ## REFERENCES
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[2]
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[3]
VOA Dari
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[4]
World
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Accessed: [October 20, 2019].
[5]
WEF
(World Economic Forum) (2018). The Global Gender Gap Report, Switzerland.
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