Generator Hydropower Open Channel Penstock Turbine Weir The number of electricity users is increasing with the increase of fuel cost and environmental pollution. The mini hydro power has grown as an alternative energy source that can be easily constructed with the minimal environmental impact. This research access the mini hydro power plant implemented on Dabena River 50 years ago by German missionaries. But it is not functioning these days. The available Gross head of the river measured using a GPS receiver and was found to be 11.5m. It has a potential for producing 150 KW. With this output power, we can supply Bedelle Agricultural and Forestry College under Mettu University and nearby rural area. Having the head, flow rate and output power of the river into consideration, the turbine selected was cross flow turbine with specific speed of 243 rpm, runner diameter of 52 cm, runner length of 82 cm, blade radius 17 cm and blade number of 18. 24 poles synchronous motor was selected as the Generator with rotational speed of 250 rpm. International renewable energy agency cost analysis was used to analyze financial viability of the project. The annual energy production estimated was 289,908kwh and the anticipated revenue to be generated is 136,256 birr. The initial cost of the project estimated to be 2.475 million birr.
## 1. INTRODUCTIONHydro-power is most common and widely used resource of
electric power generation. Around 1880 the generation of electricity derived
from hydro-turbines, and the capacity of installation worldwide has grown at
about 5% per year since. 20% of world’s electric generation is now from hydro
power [1], [2].
Output depends on the terrain and rainfall.
Hydro-power is defined as generating electric power from falling water. It is energy from water sources
such as the rivers, ocean, and waterfalls. The power or energy of
flowing water is harnessed by turbines, which are placed in the path of the
water flow. The force exerted by water moving over turbine blades rotates the
turbine runner; the turbine runner rotates the generator, which produces
electricity. -p
Water is required to run electric generating unit. It’s held in a lake behind the dam, and the water force released from the lake via the dam spin the turbine blades. The electricity can be produced in such a way that turbine is connected to the generator. The water that passes the turbine, joins the river on the down side of the dam. ## 1.1. MINI-HYDRO POWER
Mini-hydro can
be applied ranging from electrifying a single user to a number of few users
with hundreds of kilowatts to be sold for National Grid or to be used as
standalone. Small-scale hydropower is one of most considered technology that
provides clean electricity production.
1)
It
is highly efficient (70 - 90%). 2)
Its
capacity factor is high (typically >50%). 3)
It
is easily predictable. 4)
Its
rate of change is slow. 5)
It
is highly correlated with demand. 6) It is highly robust technology. In this work we have assessed a mini HPP at Dabena river,
which is located at the geographical coordinates latitude 08 The rest of
the paper is organized as follows. Section 2, assessment of civil work
components. Section 3, assessment of electromechanical components. Section 4,
contains economic analysis of MHPP and section 5 concludes the paper. ## 2.
ASSESSMENT
OF CIVIL WORK COMPONENTS
The primary data from field work as well as secondary data
obtained from Bedelle Meteorology station has been used to conduct this
research. Both primary and secondary data are put in tables bellow
Because the share of the civil work to the total cost of a MHP system is not less than 30%, proper design of this part of a system is vital [1]. Not only is this but also there are other reasons that make the proper and careful design of the civil work vital. For example, it is this component which will drive the required flow rate to the turbine and which creates the required head. Therefore, civil work components design should be done carefully and most of the time it accounts more than 60% of the overall design of a MHP system [1]. Here under is the assessment of design of some civil work components depending on the available head and flow rate at the site considered. ## 2.1. OPEN CHANNEL·
Manning coefficient for well finished cement is
0.012 [4] ·
Rectangular Type open channel that has 145 m
length from the weir to forebay tank. ·
Nominal velocity (V) of water flow in the
channel is 1.28 m/s ·
Net head of Debena MHEPP is 10 m L= 145m W=1.3m H=1m Where L = channel length W = channel width H =channel height A=WxH = 1.3x1 A= 1.3m Q= A x V Where A= area of open channel Q=flow rate of the open channel Q= 1.3x 1.28= 1.664 m
## 2.2. WEIRFor the rivers with low discharges (usually < 4 cubic
meter per second); weir may be built. Weir can be restricted as it is a small
wall or dam in the stream that can be measured with a notch with which overall
water will be channeled. We can calculate the flow rate of rectangular body as
follow [4]: Q=1.8*(W-0.2h)*h W= Width of
the Weir in (m) h = Heightof
Weir in (m) For Debena River case: Weir length 30 m and height 1.5 m Q= 1.8 *(W- 0.2 h)* h Q= 1.8 *(30- 0.2 *1.5)* 1.5 Q= 98.2 m
## 2.3. FOREBAY TANKH= 1.9 W= 2.5 L= 4.5 Where L = forebay length W = forebay
width H = forebay
height The water volume it contains can be calculated as: V= HxWxL = 1.9 x 1.5 x 4.5 V= 21 m The water storage time is V= Q X T T=V/Q T=21 second
## 3. ASSESSMENT OF ELECTROMECHANICAL COMPONENTSUnder this topic we have assessed electromechanical components such as Penstock, Turbine and Generator with reasonable engineering criteria. ## 3.1. PENSTOCK DESIGNTo transfer water to power house from the intake, Penstocks (pipes) are used. There are two possibilities to install pipes: over and under the ground. This is basically relies on factors such as the ground nature, materials where the penstock is made, temperature and the effect of the environment. The penstock in our case is underground. The estimated flow rate, length of the pipe and gross head are used to calculate the internal diameter rof penstock (Dp) as [4]. (m) With n Q=the flow rate of water in (m L H The penstock thickness relies on the materials of the pipe,
its tensile strength, and diameter of the Pipe and on the pressure where it
operates. We can calculate the minimum thickness of the pipe wall as [4]:
Dp = Diameter of the penstock in (mm). tp= Minimum thickness of the penstock in (mm). The pipe (welded steel) has capacity to withstand
deformation in the field. Hg = 11.5m Q= 1.664 m Penstock length = 30 m Where, Hg= gross head Q=
Design Discharge n = roughness coefficient L= length of
penstock (mm) ## 3.2. TURBINE POWERFalling water is the major factor that determines generation
of all hydro-electric power. We can calculate the generated power in the
turbine regardless of the path of the water in pen stock or in an open channel as:
[4] = r*g*Q (watt) =Generated turbine shaft power in Watt r= Density of water = 1000 kg/ Q= Flow rate of the water in () g= gravitational constant (9.8m/) (Normally 80-90%) From the above parameters, the output power we can obtain from the River can be: ## 3.3. TURBINE SELECTIONTurbine selection is based on the output of turbine and
available head for the site. From the turbine application chart below, the
turbine for this plant is Cross flow turbine.
Cross flow turbine has high efficiency at low head and
fabricated easily in local companies. After determining the turbine type, we
can easily estimate the turbine dimensions [18], [13]. ## 3.4. GENERATOR SELECTIONThe generator selection is based on the advantages we can get for intended site. Thus, the suitable turbine for our plant is synchronous generator due to the following reasons [18]. It provides voltage regulation, frequency and phase angle control. Because of excitation do not depend on grid Synchronous generators can isolately run from grid and then generate power. Pole calculation of synchronous generator Where, No= is rated rotational speed, No=
243 rpm f=
is frequency =50 Hz p=
pole24
Standard rated speed for 24 pole
synchronous generator is 250 rpm. The gearing ratio can be calculated as For better coupling system the speed of
generator must match the speed of turbine. Since the speed of turbine is fixed
the speed of generator increase or decrease via gear to match with the speed of
turbine. In our case we have coupled our system with gear of gearing ratio
1.02. ## 4.
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MHPP
## 4.1. LOAD ESTIMATION FOR BEDELLE CAMPUS AND NEAR LOCAL HOUSE HOLD
According to Ethiopian electric utility price rate, the average price for 1kwh is 0.47 birr. Therefore, the total revenue will be 136256.76 birr per year. ## 4.2. AVERAGE INVESTMENT COSTSThe large hydropower plants average investment cost with storage is in the range between USD 1050/kW and USD 7650/kW while small hydropower plants is between USD 1300/kW and USD 8000/kW. If the case is adding extra capacity at existing hydropower plant the cost can be cheaper, and can cost up to USD 500/kW [9]. According to International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) cost analysis [9], the rehabilitating cost is 500 -1000 US dollar per kilowatt. Dabena MHPP power capacity is 150 kW therefore the average investment cost will be 112500 US Dollar or 2.475 million Ethiopian birr. ## 5. CONCLUSIONIn this research the assessment of Dabena MHP is done. Primary data from the field and secondary data from Bedelle meteorological station has been taken, analyzed and used. The civil work Components like weir size, Open Channel size, Forebay Tank size, length and diameter of the penstock were measured directly from the site survey. Using the results from this calculations the flow rate of the river in Open Channel and weir has been calculated, which are the main parameter as an input to calculate the capacity of the plant. From the meteorological data we collected from Bedelle meteorological station, we saw that during winter time the level of river will be very small and at summer time it increases due to rain fall. We didn’t find a chance to see the powerhouse because it is long time since the powerhouse is closed and we did not find the key to open it. We did an assessment on Electromechanical Components based on internationally accepted techniques. Considering different criteria, we came to the conclusion that the turbine is Cross flow turbine and the generator type is synchronous generator. Furthermore, we have estimated the load for Bedelle campus and near local house hold. From our assessment we came to the point to identify the current capacity of the plant and it is about 150 kW. The metrological data shows that rainfall increases during summer time. Thus, we can get more power during this period. But this problem can be solved by focusing on the civil work components. If we able to increase the size of fore bay tank, Weir and open Channel, their water storage capacity will be increased. As a result the chance to have more power in only summer season can be extended to winter season. ## SOURCES OF FUNDINGThis research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. ## CONFLICT OF INTERESTThe author have declared that no competing interests exist. ## ACKNOWLEDGMENTNone. ## REFERENCES
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