RETAILING IN BANGLADESH: EVOLUTION AND EXPANSION
Clothing manufacturers in Bangladesh are known around the world for their low prices. As a destination for clothing sourcing from foreign retailers, it offers low labor costs and a large pool of human resources. This makes Dhaka a sourcing hub for global apparel buyers and retailers. Major clothing retailers in top urban destinations across the Western Hemisphere exclusively display these products in front of their customers.In an effort to develop a theoretical framework to explain Bangladesh's retail industry, three main theories can be outlined. Essentially, these theories propose that as a result of external forces (such as environment or conflict), a retail institution will develop into another type or a new type will develop because of a need, conflict, or other factors. When explaining the international expansion of Bangladeshi retailers, we intended to look at three specific theoretical frameworksie; Environmental theory, Cyclical theory and Conflict theory. The article has gone through available literatures to establish relationships between there interrelated theories and justify their selection to explain the evolution and expansion of retail industry in Bangladesh.
Alderson, W. (1957). “Marketing behavior and executive action”. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
Berens, J. S. (1980). “Capital requirements and retail institutional innovation – Theoretical observation”. Theoretical developments in marketing. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association.
Bliss, P. (1967). Schumpeter, the big disturbance and retailing. In R. R. Gist (Ed.), Management perspectives in retailing. New York: John Wiley.
Brown, Stephen. (1987). “Institutional change in retailing: A review and synthesis”. European journal of marketing. Vol 21. Issue 6.
Cauwe, M. (1979). “The life cycle of the retail business”. Retail and Distribution Management, Vol (7). Issue (4).
Cox, R. (1958). “Competitive distribution in a free high-level economy and its implications for the university”. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press.
Deiderick, T. E., & Dodge, H. R. (1983). “The wheel of retailing rotates and moves”. Marketing: Theories and concepts for an era of change. Carbondale: Southern Marketing Association.
Dhaka Tribune. (2014). “RMG industry of Bangladesh: past, present and the future”. Online publication of Dhaka Tribune, September- 2014.
Euromonitor International. (2014). Online publication.
Gereffi, Gary and Olga Memedovic. (2003). The Global Apparel Value Chain: What Prospects for Upgrading for Developing Countries (Report). Vienna, Austria: United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
Gereffi, Gary and Stacey Frederick. (2010). The Global Apparel Value Chain, Trade and the Crisis: Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries. In O.
Cattaneo, G. Gereffi & C. Staritz (Eds.), Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World(pp. 157–208). Washington, DC: World Bank.
Gist, R. R. (1968). “Retailing: Concepts and decisions”. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Guiltinan, P. (1974). “Planned and evolutionary changes in distribution channels”. Journal of Retailing. Vol 50. Issue (2).
Hall, M., Knapp, J., & Winsten, C. (1961). “Distribution in Great Britain and North America: A study in structure and productivity”. London, England: Oxford University Press.
Hunt, S. D. (1976). “Marketing theory: Conceptual foundations of research in marketing”. Columbus: Grid.
Ingene, C. A. (1983). “Intertype competition: Restaurants versus grocery stores”. Journal of Retailing, Vol 59. Issue 3
Islam, Kiron. (2015). “Readymade garments industry of Bangladesh”. Merchandising: Online library for merchandisers. Issue: September 2015.
Izraeli, D. (1973). “The three-wheel of retailing: A theoretical note”. European Journal of Marketing, Vol 7. Issue 1.
Kaynak, E. (1979). “A refined approach to the wheel of retailing”. European Journal of Marketing, Vol 13. Issue 7.
McNair, M. P. (1958). “Significant trends and developments in the postwar period”. University of Pittsburgh Press.
Oren, C. (1989). “The dialectic of the retail evolution”. Journal of Direct Marketing, 3(1).
Oxenfeldt, A. R. (1960). “The retailing revolution: Why and whither”. Journal of Retailing, Vol 36.
Research Initiative for Social Equity Society. (2013). “How the garments industry came to Bangladesh”. Online publication of RISES, November 2013.
S. Hussain, and F. Ara. Bangladesh retail food sector report. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN report no: BG 4001, 2004.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1947). Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. London: Gorge Allen and Unwin.
Shaw, G. (1978). “Processes and patterns in the geography of retail change”. Geography, 24.
Soon. Hyu and Kim. (2003). “Consumer product search and purchase behavior using various retail channels”. International journal of consumer studies. Vol32. Issue 6.
The Daily Star. (2015). “Future of RMG trade in Bangladesh”. 24th Anniversary of the daily star (part-1).
Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammed Tareque Aziz
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
License and Copyright Agreement
In submitting the manuscript to the journal, the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
- That its release has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
Authors who publish with International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or edit it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
For More info, please visit CopyRight Section