INDUCED PHENOLOXIDASE PROFILES IN SILKWORM Bombyx mori (L.) UNDER BIOTIC STRESS
Phenol oxidase (PO) is one of the stress enzyme protein in living organism. The conversion of Pro-PO into an activation form of PO required a stress protein. In the present study has emerged with the novel finding of induced phenoloxidase was identified under bacterial endotoxin viz., Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity using silkworm Bombyx mori as an animal model. The PO enzyme plays an important role for insect survival during pathophysiological conditions. The enzyme activity was analyzed from ten different silkworm races with two phenolic substrates viz., L-Dopa and Dopamine by Native-PAGE. The bacterially induced PO was found in hemolymph and midgut of silkworm, PO3 were induced by LPS injection. In control PO1 & PO2 are non-bacterially induced protein having the molecular weight of 72 and 71. The results shown that there is no substrate specificity and similar functional activity was found in hemolymph and midgut under pathogenic condition. It was observed that bacterially inducible PO clearly differed from non-inducible PO (control). At final observation of induced isozymes of PO in the haemolymph and midgut system of tolerant silkworm races points out the existence of biochemical immunity against biotic stress of LPS. This is the first report to document the silkworm immunity under the LPS toxin in different silkworm races to identify the tolerant and susceptibility against a biotic stress.
Boman HG. Cell-free immunity in Cecropia, a model system for antibacterial proteins. European Journal of Biochemistry.1991; 201:23-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb16252.x
Boman HG.Innate immunity and the normal microflora. Immunology Review.2000; 173:5-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-065X.2000.917301.x
Zasloff M.Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms. Nature.2002; 415(6870): 389-395. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/415389a
Takahiro Shiotsuki, Yusuke Kato.Induction of carboxylesterase isozymes in Bombyx mori by E.Coli infection. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 1999; 29: 731-736. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-1748(99)00054-5
Arai H, Okido T, Fujii H , Doira H. Purification and characterization of a major esterase BesB from haemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan.2000; 69:121-131.
Jenny Rodr´ıguez, Gilles Le Moullac. State of the art of immunological tools and health control of penaeid shrimp, Aquaculture.2000;191: 109–119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00421-X
Shelley A Adamo. Estimating disease resistance in insects: phenoloxidase and lysozyme like activity and disease resistance in the cricket Gryllus texensis. Journal of Insect Physiology .2004; 50:209–216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2003.11.011
Qiuxiang Pang, Shicui Zhang, Bosheng Zhao.Induction of phenoloxidases in the humoral fluids of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri by Vibrio alginolyticus and Escherichia coli. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 2009; 26:669–671. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2009.02.019
Vishnu Priya S. Bio-molecular studies in selected silkworm races of Bombyx mori (L.) and their association with the genetic hardiness” (Doctoral dissertation), Retrieved from http://shodhaganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/70179/5/chapter%201.pdf. 2015.
Ishii K,Hamamoto H, Kamimura M, Sekimizu K. Activation of the silkworm cytokine by bacterial and fungal cell wall components via a reactive oxygen species-triggered mechanism. Journal of Biological Chemistry.2008; 283:2185-2191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M705480200
Genome Pharmaceuticals Institute Co., Ltd., Bacteria and fungi infection models. Japan patent application no.2000-177565 (2001-583180): 2000.
Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. Journal Biological Chemistry.1951; 193: 265-275.
Kathryn Newton, Rodney Peters, David Raftos.Phenoloxidase and QX disease resistance in Sydney rockoysters (Saccostrea glomerata) Developmental and Comparative Immunology.2004; 28: 565–569. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2003.10.004
Saleem Aladaileh, Peters Rodney, Sham V Nair, David A Raftos. Characterization of phenoloxidase activity in Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (Part B).2007; 148: 470–480. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2007.07.089
Kohji Yamamoto, Mikimasa Sugioka, Hiroshi Fujii,Yoichi Aso, Masatsune Ishiguru. Isolation and characterization of prophenoloxidase isoforms from the silkworm, Bombyx mori (a80 Strain). Journal of Sericultural Science Japan. 1999; 68(1): 65-72.
Mellors WK, Allegro A, Propts SE. Adult reproductive diapauses in the Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera cocemellida) interaction of temperature with photoperiod. Environmental Entomology.1984; 13: 409-414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/13.2.409
Bauer HC. Effect of photo period and temperature on the choline esterase activity in the ganglia of Schistocera gregoria. Journal of Insect Physiology. 1976; 22: 683-688. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(76)90233-X
Marmaras VJ.Immune Response in Insects: The Role of Phenoloxidase in Defense Reactions in Relation to Melanization and Sclerotization. Architecture of Insect Biochemistry and Physiolology.1996; 31 (2): 119-133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6327(1996)31:2<119::AID-ARCH1>3.0.CO;2-V
Asano T, Ashida M. Cuticular Pro-phenoloxidase of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori Purification and demonstration of its transport from hemolymph. Journal of Biological Chemistry.2001; 276:11113–11125. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M008425200
VishnuPriya S, Somasundaram P. Bacterial Endotoxin (Lipopolysaccharide) Associated Stress Enzyme Profiles in Silkworm Bombyx mori (L.). International Journal of New Technologies in Science and Engineering. 2017; 4(3): 2349-0780.
Eleftherianos. Role and Importance of Phenoloxidase in Insect Hemostasis. Journal of Innate Immunology. 2011; 3 (1): 28-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000321931
Mason HS. Oxidases. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 1965; 34: 595–634. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.34.070165.003115
Yu XQ, Jiang H, Wang Y, Kanost MR. Nonproteolytic serine proteinase homologs are involved in prophenoloxidase activation in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2003; 33: 197-208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-1748(02)00191-1
Ragan EJ, An C, Jiang H, Kanost MR. Roles of hemolymph proteins in antimicrobial defenses of Manduca sexta. In: Reynolds S, Rolff J, editors. Insect infection and Immunity, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 34-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0003
Dimopoulos G, Richman A, Muller HM, Kafatos FC. Molecular immune responses of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae to bacteria and malaria parasites. Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA.1997; 94:11508–110513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.21.11508
Isaac González-Santoyo, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar. Phenoloxidase: a key component of the insect immune system. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2012; 142: 1– DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01187.x
Copyright (c) 2017 Vishnu Priya S, Somasundaram P
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
License and Copyright Agreement
In submitting the manuscript to the journal, the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
- That its release has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
Authors who publish with International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or edit it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
For More info, please visit CopyRight Section