• Meriem Chaggar Research Unit Horticulture, Landscape and Environment, University of Sousse, Tunisia
  • Mohsen Boubaker Research Unit Horticulture, Landscape and Environment, University of Sousse, Tunisia
Keywords: Landscape Degradation Factors, Hergla, Perception, Citizen Participation, Survey


This research proposes to identify the factors of the urban landscapes degradation in Hergla’s city (Tunisia) according on the citizen participation. It is based on the survey method which is developed around two axes: the citizen perception of urban landscapes and the factors of their degradation. According to the responses obtained, "the sea" represents the particular value of the landscapes identified as "quality" in Hergla. Citizens don’t appreciate landscapes of urban sprawl which makes the city lose its identity. Moreover, the lack of citizen participation in the urban actions and the non-observance of the urban regulations are the most cited factors of the landscape degradation. These results highlight the importance of involving the citizens in the planning process for a sustainable territory.


Download data is not yet available.


Aguejdad R. Étalementurbainetévaluation de son impact sur la biodiversité, de la reconstitution des trajectoires à la modélisation prospective. Application à uneagglomération de taillemoyenne: Rennes Métropoleé. [On line] Geography.Rennes 2University, 2009, 372p. Available on: (Consulted on 01/09/2015).

Alpes de Lumière Association.The perception of the landscape by locals. [On line].2011 Available on: (Consulted on 16/04/2016).

Ayari C., Regional Development Perspectives in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia. [On ligne].2011. Available on: (Consulted on 04/01/2017).

Bailly E. Espacesimaginés, espaceshabités. Au-delà de la mondialisation: Téhéran, Rabat, New York, Paris. [On line] Urbanism.Institute of Urbanism of Paris, France, 2009, 456p.Available on: (Consulted on 31/08/2017).

Burel F. and Baudry J. Landscape ecology, concepts, methods and applications. Editions TEC and DOC. Technical and Documentation, Paris, 1999, 359p.

ouchon F.Kuala Lumpur, Metropolisation and Globalization at the Risk of Tourism: Challenges and Prospects.[On line].2012.Available on: (Consulted on 15/01/2017)

Caille-Cattin C. Le paysage, de l'information à l'élaborationd'une culture paysagère: vers des médiationspaysagères au service des acteursde l'aménagement du territoire. [On line] Geography.University of Franche-Comté, 2005, 348p.University of Franche-Comté.Available on: (Consulted on 31/10/2017).

CAUE64. Survey-Actors of the territory-August / December 2014. [On line].2014. Available on: on 16/04/2016).

Chaggar M. andBoubaker M. The Landscape Biodiversity for Sustainable Urban Development: Case of the City of Hergla. In: Eco-landscape alternatives in the Mediterranean regions. Tunisia, Official Printing Office,2015: Acts of 13th days Horticulture Landscape UR.HPE, 1-3 June 2015, Sousse Tunisia. 452p.

Chaggar M. andBoubaker M. Landscape instrumentalisation for the planning and management of an autonomous city. Case of Hergla (Tunisia). Arid Regions Review [On line], No.40 (2/2016), Special issue: Proceedings of the International Symposium LOTH 2016 « Gouvernance et Communication Territoriales ». 7-9 April 2016. Mahdia, Tunisia. Available on:

Chaggar M. and Boubaker M. Land use change in Hergla (Tunisia): spatial characteristics and impacts on biodiversity. In: International Conference on Applied Geology and Environment (iCAGE2016). May 19-21, 2016. Mahdia, Tunisia.

Clement D., Cabrit J.L. and Doizelet M.P. Landscape and planning: proposals for a national action plan. Report n°: 00833301.General Council for the Environment and Sustainable Development, 2014.

Counsilof Europe. European Landscape Convention. Florence 2000. [On line]. 2000.Available on: on 24/02/2014).

Da Cunha A., Knoepfel P., Leresche J.P. and Nahrath S. Issues of sustainable urban development. Urban transformation, resource management and governance. Polytechnic and University Presses Romandes, 2005, 279p.

Dhaher N. Tunisian spatial planning: 50 years of globalization-proof policies. EchoGéo [On line].2010. Available on: (Consulted on 30/09/2016).

Dirasset. Revision of the urban development plan of the city of Hergla. Municipality of Hergla, 2009, 35p.

Dollfus, O., Globalization. Paris:Presses of Sciences Po (The Citizen's Library), 2001.3rd edition 2007, 168 p.

Donadieu P. andRejeb H. Abstract of landscape geomediation. Tunisian official printing office, 2009, 176p.

Droeven E., Feltz C. and Kummert M. The landscape territories of Wallonia. Studies and Documents [on line].2004. Ministry of the Walloon Region, CPDT, 4. 68p. Available on: on 06/11/2017).

El Gaied M. and Meyer V., 2014. Communication, tourism and territorial development: the example of the Gsours of southeastern Tunisia. The issues of information and communication [On line].2014/1 (n°15/1), p5/15.Available on: on 12/10/2017). DOI:

Hamdaoui A. Scales of landscape analysis of the strategic infrastructures established on the coastal cord of Sousse North. Landscape, Territory and Heritage. Higher Agronomic Institute of ChottMariem, University of Sousse, Tunisia, 2015, 231p.

Kasdallah N. Dynamics of urbanization of intermediate cities in the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia): Main effect and development perspectives. [On line] Geography. University of Cergy Pontoise, 2013, 351p. Available on: on 17/01/2017).

Kieffer E. and Serradj A. Remote sensing in the service of urban studies: expansion of the city of Pondicherry between 1973 and 2009. Geomatics Expert [On line].2013, N° 95. Available on: (Consulted on 20/06/2017).

Koop K., Landel P-A. and Pecqueur B. 2010. Why believe in the model of territorial development in the Maghreb? A critical approach. EchoGéo [on line]. 2010, n°13/2010.Available on: on 30/09/2016).

Minvielle E. and Souiah S-A. Statistical and spatial analysis: Statistics, cartography, remote sensing, GIS. Editions of time, 2003, 255p (Tools and methods in geography, Collection directed by Vincent Moriniaux).

Pecqueur B. Territorial development: a new approach to development processes for the economies of the South. In: The territory is dead, long live the territories! (Re) manufacturing in the name of development. [on line]. Marseille: IRD Editions, 2005.Available on: (Consulted on 15/10/2017).

Romain F. and Toublanc M.Landscape perceptions and regional atlases of landscapes. The example of Pays-de-la-Loire. [On line].2014. Available on: on 13/04/2016).

Ruch E. and Serradj A. Évolutions patiotemporelle de la tacheurbaine à l'aide de cartesanciennes, d'imagessatellitaires et des Systèmesd' Information...[On line].2016. Available on: rbaine_a_l'aide_de_cartes_anciennes_d'images_satellitaires_et_des_Systemes_d'Information_Ge ographique_le_cas_de_Blida_en_Algerie (Consulted on 20/06/2017).

Sgard A. What is an identity landscape? Valence, France. La passe du vent [On line]. 1997.Available on:

UN Habitat. Urbanization trends: Urban sprawl is now a global problem.Embargo [on line].2010. Available on: on 01/09/2017).

How to Cite
Chaggar, M., & Boubaker, M. (2018). FRAGMENTATION AND DEGRADATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE IN HERGLA, TUNISIA . International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research, 5(12), 60-77.